Some of the amazing wonders happening on the planet earth vary from one region to another and are characterized by rise in the sea levels, changing precipitation patterns, expansion of sub-tropic desert, continued retreat of glaciers, permafrost and sea ice, ocean acidification, heavy rainfall and droughts, extinction of species, due to shifting of temperature regimes and extreme weather events, including the heat waves. To most ignorant people, it is the sign of the end of the days, and many people stay out of the radar of determining what really surmounts to change in the climatic structure of the world. Amidst the confusion, science brings it all home that global warming is underway in on the earth. Global warming is defined as the tremendous rise in Earth's average temperature in oceans and atmosphere counted from the 19th century and is still continuing. From the beginning of the 20th century, the Earth's surface has registered a significant increase in its temperature by approximately 0.8°C, with almost two-thirds taking place since 1980 (Davey & Pielker, 2005).
Global warming taking place in climatic systems is found to be unequivocal, hence, scientists are sure that the primary cause of global warming is the concentration of greenhouse gases, as a result of human activities, such as deforestation and burning of fossil fuels. This topic has aroused interests in scientists, and different professionals are paving way for a variety of disputes in efforts to establish a common truth, especially in popular media, as compared to scientific literature. The disputed issues include; the real causes of increase in global average air temperature, unprecedented nature of the warming trend with normal variations in climate, whether human beings are the greatest contributors and whether the continuous increase is wholly or partly an artifact of poor measurement (Eric, 2010). Other disputes concern predictions of increased warming activity, approximations of climate sensitivity and the future consequences of global warming. Scientists have managed to resolve some of the endless lists of questions favoring the view of the existence of global warming with human activity as the primary cause. Based on information provided by a scientific literature, a strong consensus emanates that there has been a considerable increase in the global temperature in recent decades with the human-induced emission of gases being the main cause. There are some organizations still holding on to certain non-committal positions, thus, opposing to this idea.
First, the reality of global warming is noted in numerous human activities taking place on the land, instigated the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is the process by which emission and absorption of infrared radiations into the atmosphere leads to an increase in the temperature of the earth's surface, as well as the atmosphere. Firstly, it is important to note that a considerable increase in global warming became eminent in the middle of the 20th century when industrialization was a priority to many nations. Undeniably, industrialization is characterized by the setting of many industries with the development of other complementary sectors, increasing the human activities on the land. Need for technological advancements was also at the heart of nations and continues to happen, thus, laying foundations for global warming. Facts indicate that amounts of greenhouse gases occurring naturally instigate a warming effect of approximately 33 °C. Some of the gases include; water vapor, which initiates a 36-70% greenhouse effect, methane which brings forth a 9% effect, Carbon dioxide causing between 9-26% effect and Ozone gas causing between 3-7% (Houghton, 2001). Radiation balance is also affected by clouds, by the action of cloud forcing the effect of greenhouse gases. Industrial activities on the land have increased the number of greenhouse gases released in the atmosphere causing an increased radioactive forcing from carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, tropospheric ozone, methane, and CFCs.
Records indicate that there has been a tremendous increase in the concentration of methane and Carbon dioxide by 148% and 36% respectively since the end of the 18th century. It also comes to light that the levels have been high beyond the question in the last eight hundred years. The burning of fossil fuels emanates a lot of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, causing about the three-quarters increase in production of Carbon dioxide from activities on the land for the past twenty years. Therefore, increase in human activities instigated release of waste gases to the atmosphere, thus, being a foundation reason for the occurrence of global warming, as opposed to other purported causes, such as solar activity. Growth in production and GDP per capita in many countries became the main drivers of elevation in the amount of emission of greenhouse gas. In fact, human beings can not escape industrialization because industries are needed for different basic sectors, such as textile, steel, food processing, oil, and all manufacturing activities, and as long as fuel is used in running such industries, global warming would continue to be a major challenge. Approximations on possible changes in the levels of emission of greenhouse gases in the future show the dependence upon uncertain technological, economic, sociological, and natural developments (Houghton, 2001). Different scenarios depict the continuity in the rise of emissions over the centuries, while others indicate the reduction in emissions. Besides, the release of toxic gases from industries has caused depletion of the ozone layer, paving a way for infrared radiations to penetrate to the surface of the earth. Infrared radiations are one of the chief causes of global warming, and the only chance of mitigating these is to ensure that human activities do not produce such releases.
Global warming has been noticed in many natural systems. The most effectual one is the rise in the sea level all around the world. This may not be good news to the world, as it potentially affects the general human population residing in islands and coastal regions, and the natural environment, as a whole. For instance, it is recorded that a rise of 17 centimeters happened between the 1870 and2004, while between 1950 and 2009, data from satellite showed a rise of 3.3 ± 0.4mm, which is one of the fastest increase, as compared to any other estimates. This rise is attributed to two factors, namely; thermal expansion characterized by expansion of ocean water as it warms, while the second is the land-based ice contribution, as a result of increased melting. Ice sheets and glaciers, and the major water store on earth. The rise is the sea level is one of the evidences supporting the view of global warming. Supposedly, human-induced warming as the main contributor of rising in the sea the level observed during the latter half of the 20th century. The rise in the sea level is expected to continue in many centuries to come. Projections from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climatic Change in 2007 indicates that during the 21st century alone, another rise in the sea level would take place with 59 cm, excluding the uncertainties regarding the feedback from the carbon-climate cycle. Another feature in the natural systems is increased solar activity or cosmic rays. The commonly agreed position delineates a 0.12 W/m² increase in solar radiation for the anthropogenic forcing. Changes put together in terms of volcanic aerosols and solar variations form a negative estimate in the past four decades. Few studies confirm that the current level of solar activity is one of the highest in history, affected by activity on the sunspot. Other climatic changes on natural systems affirming the reality of global warming include; tropospheric temperature record, Antarctica cooling, equilibrium climate sensitivity, and arctic shrinkage.
With the existence of global warming, harmful effects emanate. Increase in earth's temperature is for the better. Since the late 20th century, global warming has caused a number of observable changes in the general trend associated with extreme climate and weather events, such as heat waves. Some of these trends were caused by different degrees of confidence. Twenty-first-century projections show the continuing changes to extremism. For instance, Solomon predicted with more than a 66% probability that these will be the likely changes; increase in cyclone activity in the tropics, drought-affected areas and incidences of high sea level, such as tsunamis. These changes will affect the entire human society and ecosystems adversely. An increased volcanic activity is dangerous to human survival. With the retreat of ice caps and glaciers, volcanism would be at its peak. This is because when ice cover reduces, an increase in confining pressure on the volcano is registered, thus, leading to an increase in deviatory stresses causing an eruption of erupting. Pressure reduction also causes decompression melting of materials deposited in the mantle, leading to magma generation. Volcanic activity affects the air transport by the grounding of planes because the ashes hamper visibility, displaces people from one place to another, renders an area inhabitable, and can lead to the death of those living around the affected areas. With increasing rate of global warming, the number of earthquakes taking place in different regions of the earth would increase. A numerical modeling suggests that seismicity is due to increase in unloading because of ice removal from some places. Earthquakes are known to interfere with the land, as well as the general human population, owing to the fact that they take place abruptly without the due signs or warnings (Solomon, 2010). This implies that with increased global warming, loss of lives and property is due to take place, which can never be good news for any normal person. The occurrence of extreme events is also attributed to global warming. Fire is one of the major concerns, which lead to alteration in terrestrial carbon balance with the aid of altered fire regimes. The study shows that there is likely to be an increase in the earth's mean temperature of 2°C in the next decade. This would turn out to an increased fire intensity and frequency in most areas. Other harmful effects to human beings and the environment include; extreme weather, characterized by tropical cyclones, and heavy flooding. Therefore, global warming is harmful to the human population, since it affects human health, environment, infrastructure, and natural calamity on the land.
Global warming can be said not to exist. This means that all the above arguments and ideas are just but pieces of heresies, snobberies, sacrileges, and fallacies. According to Mike Henry, temperatures are not on the rising end. This is confirmed by Christopher Booker, who strongly asserts that there has been a drop in temperature in an unpredictable way over the past years. For instance, last year featured the greatest snow in the northern hemisphere since 1966, which the media in Canada and U.S dubbed "winter from hell." Besides, it is also probable that the earth was hotter 1000 years ago, as compared to the degree of hotness today. Additionally, it appears misleading to point out that the ice is disappearing, which is contrary to the fact. Information from Cryosphere Today website indicates that the volume of Arctic ice was greater than the previous year by a figure of 500,000 sq km. Moreover, Antarctic sea ice reached the highest levels since the time satellite recording started in 1979 (Mike, 2009). Just mentioning these few portrays the idea that the concept of global warming being supported by temperatures may just be a ghost.
In conclusion, numerous evidence exist to support the existence of global warming. Counter-arguments against the idea of global warming never support themselves with any kind of substantive evidence of what surely exists, but rather opposed to what has already been coined. Therefore, it is reasonable to stand on the point that global warming is a reality, and has harmful effects on the entire human population and environments.
- Mike, H. (2009). Why we disagree about climate change: understanding controversy, inaction and opportunity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press
- Houghton, J. (2001). Climate Change 2001: The scientific basis: Contribution of working group I to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Davey, A. & Pielker, A. (2005). "Global Warming". New York: Prentice Hall.
- Solomon, P (2010). The climate war: True believers, power brokers, and the fight to save the planet. Hyperion, New York
- Mintzer, M. (1992). "Confronting climate change". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 265-272.