City planning is a task in which architects work to direct the future and present development of the city by discovering a vigilant balance amid institutional, commercial, recreational and residential requirements. It can still be described as a technical and political process related to utilization of land and design of an urban environment along with transportation networks, to monitor and make sure the growth of communities and settlements. Projects are instituted in central zones of change in a town or the neighborhood. A new neighborhood, for instance, is planned as a project. Planning and building a large project requires enough resources ranging from material, ideological and knowhow. In order to come up with an effective and successful city planning project, a number of important issues should be considered. These include: population of the city, security status, the volume of pollution in the area and budget expectation. Infrastructures such as transport network, communications systems and political environment are also important. A city plan takes a number of forms counting regulatory strategies, strategic plans, neighborhood plans, and comprehensive plans, incentive strategies, or historic preservation plans. The individuals who conduct planning are referred to as planners. They are responsible for enforcing the chosen policies and converting suggestions into ideas (Taylor, 2007).
In order to be ranked a modern city, the city of Berkeley needs a modern planning. The security and safety situation of the city is changing for the worst with daily incising number of crimes. The city lacks modern public schools together with other basic amenities. The ideal of modernism, influenced by modernist architect Le Corbusier, paved a great contribution in city planning idea of a modern city. Most modern countries in the world have adopted city planning as the basic foundation of development in urban centers. The main ideas behind the city planning are provision of safety and security, elimination of slums, poor dirt and waste disposal, as well as improvement of transport and communication systems. To facilitate effective city planning a number of essential theories must be considered (Wheeler, 2004). The theories include: Communicative approach theory, Rational planning, Synoptic planning, Mixed scanning model, Trans active planning, Advocacy planning and Bargaining model. The planning process begins with gathering and evaluating information regarding every feature of the city. Vital features include such issues as traffic congestion and pollution. Pollution cases involve: water, air and soil pollution, ecological preservation and infrastructure. Planners have a mandate of analyzing highway and street capacity, cultural sites, site and volume of water and culvert lines, libraries public schools, just to mention but a few. Development of technology and the increased use of computers and other information technology devices have made this easier and more efficient.
Once all the information has been collected and analyzed, the designers proceed their work in collaboration with area groups, law enforcement agencies, business leaders and government administrators to define the requirements of the community. In this regard, zoningbuilding and codes and environmental rules have to be considered to ensure that the plan is lawful and will work in existing programs. A vital aspect of capital planning is existence of industry infrastructure in the area. Geographical benchmarks are also a strategic factor in how the area is planned. A lake or beach community might have an entirely diverse plan than mountain, or landlocked cities. This paper will focus on city planning in relation to Berkeley city.
Safety refers to a situation in which the residents of the place are protected from security challenges and crime. Hence, it is one of the most important features of city planning. The crime rate ascribed to Berkeley experienced slight rise despite the fact that the region is under the patrol of many police officers and security guards. (Taylor, 2007). To combat this situation, the planners should come up with strategies of installing modern security systems such as cc cameras instead of increasing the number of policemen. The police officers deployed in the city should also be trained on modern ways of fighting crime. It will guarantee the safety of residents and with their properties.
The article stresses the plight of Berkley's residents tackling safety issues after multiple shootings in southwest Berkley, when individuals expressed greater concerns regarding their safety, as opposed to their property values. Moreover, the statistics cited by neighborhoodscout.com shows that the crime index is 4 percent which is a sign that the capital is not safe.
In order to come up with a solution to safety and crime problem, the city planners of Berkley should consider this a priority and implement modern strategies of fighting crime. They seek for ideas from the communities in the town on how this challenge can be solved.
The upward trend associated with a serious crime within Berkeley is underscored in the recently released FBI statistics. According to the statistics, the two key categories of serious crime emerged include: property crimes and violent crimes. Both of these crimes experienced an increase between 2011 and 2012. Violent crime rose slightly by 0.2% from 482-487. On the other hand, property crimes, theft, larceny, burglary, arson and stolen autos rose from 5, 064 to 5,696. Berkley Police cites that this increasing trend in crime was noted during the first half of the year 2013. The most striking up-soar was the robbery of pedestrians that rose by 35 percent, with the most notable incidences being cellphone robberies. The annual figures released by the FBI indicate that Berkeley is ranked 4th among 24 cities in East Bay in terms of violent crimes. In terms of property crimes, the city ranks second behind Oakland, with a victim rate of 50 per 1000 residents.
Statistical figures highlight considerably low level of safety associated in the region. This information is important during the city planning since it helps the planners understand the number of security personnel required and the security facilities needed in the new city.
The issue of homeless refers to a situation where individual does not own a place to reside. The homeless people hanging around the public and sleep on the streets without blankets or warm clothes. It is a serious subject because the public park is situated close to the community residence. For this reason, homeless individuals emerge as a nuisance to the populace with places of a domicile close to the public space. At the same time, provision of medical services to homeless costs the city management a lot since these people cannot afford to pay their medical bills. From this point of view, the city planners should consider to ensure that there are affordable houses for all individuals in the city.
A prudent step would be construction of a shelter for the homeless so that they do not grapple with the challenge of sleeping on cold floors at night. In addition, some volunteers can be involved to help the homeless people find a habitat. Moreover, the government can be implored to build one more police department so that residents living in this region do not feel insecure. Management of the shelters is also essential since lack of regulation denies the homeless their housing rights and renders a setback to help the vagrant get back on their feet. A proper assessment of the homeless population is bound to espouse accountability and efficiency of service about offering accommodation to the homeless. Social workers with the requisite capacity to facilitate this assessment are bound to be a particularly useful resource. Therefore, building shelters for homeless should be considered important since it offers a great contribution in the welfare of the city.
Data Collection Plan
Surveys and the questionnaires will be used as the research tool to collect data on issues of safety and shelter. Regional surveys conducted during the night hours are bound to reveal the number of homeless individuals residing in public spaces. Structured questionnaires can shed light on the key security concerns and function to build capacity on the corrective measures that should be taken to avert the conundrum.
Major Planning Issues
To turn this city into a modern one, a number of major issues should be put into consideration. The first issue is to lower the cost of livelihood for the city residents. It can be done through construction of affordable residential and business houses in the city (Smith 2005). Research and analyses will enable the planners to satisfy the residents through creating a balance between social and economic situation in the city. Asking for support from donors and well-wishers will also assist the government to solve the settlement problem. Safety issue is necessary and should also be put into consideration when planning the new look city. Enough security officers should be employed to guarantee public safety and security. Other important issues are hygiene, food safety, drainage and provision of clean water for drinking and domestic use. Pollution is another challenge that affects most of the modern cities. It should be addressed to make sure that the city has a healthy environment.
There are different recommendations based on the interviews conducted on university students on the safety concerns in the region. They cite that the police ought to familiarize themselves with the inhabitants. It will enable them to make a distinction between credible residents and those with negative record., It will assist the police to perform their duties therefore, guarantee public safety and security. At the same time, it will reduce crime cases such as theft, robbery and destruction of private property (Smith, 2005).
Another recommendation is to secure working places for the youth in Berkley. It is bound to minimize the number of idle youth loitering in the streets and avert their inclination to committing a crime. As said in the saying, idle mind is the devil's workshop. When young people are idle, they turn easily into criminals.
The last recommendation is on the issue of hygiene. The city requires a constant supply of enough and clean water for drinking and other uses. It will reduce the level of diseases spreading in the city and maintain the city in a clean state. It can be done through the use of pipe water as well as bore holes.
In conclusion, the city planning requires cooperation of people in technical, social and economic process. It can only be achieved through implementation of research findings and financial dedication. The planners require to be informed about the city planning theories to accomplish the planning and acquire good result. Planners should involve all the participating parties in their research to avoid regrets in the future. In addition, it is vital to employ the findings of an attentive research conducted with the motive of promoting development. However, the basic needs of the residents should be put into consideration when planning any city. It will enhance a standard of living and the welfare of the city.