According to Tyler Cowan, if there is going to be a solution to the challenges in the Islamic world, then it will be more globalization, not less. By and large, globalization is simply the process through which there is a free flow of goods, services, ideas, people, as well as capital. This eventually results in the mixing of financial systems as well as the social orders. Over and above, the world has largely experienced successive waves of globalization, with the Islamic world being no exception. It is also worth noting that the revolution of the ICT has greatly facilitated the exchange as well as the processing of information through the expansion of a wide variety of quality services that can be traded, thus turning the world into a "global village".
It is also vital to bear in mind the fact that liberalism, the belief in the innate right of freedom, or the liberty for all humanity has also been the force behind the spread of globalization even into the Islamic world. In spite of the fact that there are different groups of liberals with different beliefs, most of the liberals attest to the fact that it promotes the freedom of speech, free trade, free elections and the freedom of religion. By and large, the twin cord of globalization and liberalism could offer the solution for the problems of the Islamic world.
Globalization in the Islamic Perspective
All over the world, it should be noted that Muslims are part and parcel of the diverse cultures, the socioeconomic classes, as well as the ethnicities of the world as a whole. Muslims make up the second most religious demographic in the globe. In many ways, the topic of globalization has undergone intense negative as well as positive connotations is the Islamic world.
Most of the Muslims who dwell in the traditional Third World or the economically underdeveloped countries are known to be busy seeking the middle ground between communism and capitalism (Cunningham 2008). For such people, the road for fiscal development is actually very difficult and arduous. Additionally, education and technology act as obstacles which hinder them when facing global institutions as well as the apparent Western dominance.
Most of the Islamic populace is of the view that embracing liberalism and globalization has resulted in them being faced by a myriad of challenges. For instance, the fiscal reforms brought about by liberalism and globalization led to the opening of their societies to the culture of the Western fiscal system, thus resulting into the homogenization of their societies along the lines of the Western model (Wiseman 2008).
Why Globalization and Liberalism are the Solutions
Maximization of Human Welfare
In many ways, an entirely integrated world economy is instrumental in offering a great scope for maximizing human welfare. Coupled with the essentials of sharing and dissemination of knowledge through information technology, citizens of the Islamic world can tap into the benefits of having a knowledge-based economy. This is vital since instead of depending on tools and labor, which are rather slow in generating economic growth, the Islamic world can generate new wealth from innovations. This is very significant especially when it comes to the creation of millions of knowledge based job opportunities in the range of disciplines which have emerged over the past couple of years.
Due to the fact that knowledge is power, the assistance of cross-border sharing of knowledge integrates the world economy, thus alleviating Islamic countries from the isolation that has characterized the nature of their economies for far too long (Keyman & Koyuncu 2005). The presence of transnational as well as multinational corporations goes a long way in improving the world economy. Additionally, liberalism and globalization can also solve the problems in the Islamic world because they promote the spread of information technologies which have the power to create the vibrant comparative advantage by enhancing knowledge.
Globalization and liberalism can also go a long way in solving the problems of the Islamic world since they assist their economies to adapt global knowledge as well as generate knowledge locally. Again, the Islamic world, with the assistance of globalization, can invest in human capital and increase their ability to absorb and utilize knowledge. In many ways, the investment in technologies is instrumental in facilitating both the acquisition as well as the absorption of knowledge.
The revolution in ICT has the effect of forging closer links between heterogeneous Muslim communities as well as more cooperation and understanding between the various Muslim sects. One fundamental reason why globalization is a solution to be challenges that bedevil the Islamic world is mainly because the Koran lays deep emphasis on equality, justice, and peace.
In this way, scholars in the Islamic world ought to move swiftly and seize the opportunities provided by globalization to promote these significant values. In this way, they will assist in establishing a true "global village". Over and above, a combination of modern education, as well as contemporary religious practices, is vital in the creation of a thriving Islamic world.
Reduction of Poverty
According to research, globalization is able to initiate a considerable reduction in poverty levels in the society. This is because more integrated economies are known to be in a position of growing faster, with this growth being widely diffused. If the low-income countries in the Islamic world can break into the global markets for manufactures as well as services, the underprivileged people in these countries can be in a position of moving from the vulnerability of grinding and rural paucity to better jobs, often in the urban and metropolitan centers (Khan & Bashar 2010). The impact of this structural relocation results into integration, which leads to a raise in productivity job by job. Globalization has the effect of offering a window of prospects to the Islamic world.
The foreign direct investment programs that come as a result of globalization can go a long way in helping to reduce poverty in some of the Third World countries in the Islamic world such as Bangladesh and Indonesia. In many ways, expansion of trade as well as foreign investment is also bound to result in the acceleration of social mobility. This is effective in strengthening the middle class in the Islamic world, thus leading to the reduction of poverty.
Promotion of Human Rights
The issue of human rights lack in the Islamic world is a common occurrence with a good number of people in the Islamic world facing serious atrocities. In most cases, the due process of the law is usually non-existent with people being detained even without the trial. In many ways, globalization can go a long way in assisting to alleviate this persistent problem. According to the United Nations, member countries are expected to uphold the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. However, this is not always the case in the Islamic world, with most governments turning a blind eye on the issue.
By and large, the transnational integration, as well as the increase in mobility, can be instrumental in strengthening the human lives dignity. This is due to the fact that globalized markets have been effective in facilitating the monitoring of social conditions in the Islamic world as well as opening up these countries for economic exploitation. Additionally, the flow of information from the developed world to the Islamic emboldens the campaigns for human rights and fosters transnational activist networks (Arnett 2004).
There is a clear relationship that exists between globalization and equality as well as non-discrimination. The two concepts are vital in the corpus as well as the philosophy of human rights instruments and practices (Institute of Policy Studies 2010). According to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, all persons are equal with the right to non-discrimination being a basic and fundamental. Additionally, as a result of globalization, countries are expected to abide the laid agreements which also fight for the upholding of human rights.
Globalization heralds an age in which different cultures, as well as beliefs from all parts of the world, are able to meet, engage in dialogue and also evaluate each other. In this regard, obstacles or frontiers are done away with and the Islamic world ought to see globalization as an opportunity for them to spread all over the world, thus working out modalities on how to do away with the negative prejudices which are known to the rest of the world on Islam as a religion. This is instrumental in opening up the Islamic regions for trade and investment, with innovation, morality and knowledge being the basis for how Islam ought to be viewed.
Furthermore, the advantage conferred by technology such as the availability of the Internet is vital in the formation of an environment in which Muslims are in a position of holding different kinds of ideas and therefore freely express themselves. Globalization will also assist many Islamic societies to overcome censorship and therefore freely reveal their difficulties, pressures, as well as the oppression that they undergo (Aydin & Ozen 2010).
In many ways, Muslim minorities who had never been known to exist are now able to voice their challenges to the entire world just in a couple of minutes. Today, as a result of globalization, pictures, as well as images of oppression of all kinds, are easily availed to the entire world, thus provoking necessary actions.
Globalization has led to an explosion of knowledge as well as information, especially as a result of the introduction of computers as well as the use of the Internet and other technologically mediated learning. This is possible through the use of facilities like CD-ROM, Email, E-chat, database, digital library, and LMS among many others. This can also be an answer to the challenges of the Islamic world, in which there are parts still dogged with ignorance and traditional ways of life (Razak 2011). Through digital libraries, researchers have access to information that can help them transform lives in their localities in various spheres like medicine, technology, and the economy.
Development of Women Rights
By and large, the Islamic world is infamous for looking down on women whose main responsibility is to produce children and to assist their husbands in establishing their lives. However, the coming of globalization, as well as liberalism, is vital to the freedom of women from the dogmatic demarcations that have for long characterized their lives (Metcalfe 2008). Globalization facilitates the development of political and civil rights of women. As a result of globalization, women can equally have educational opportunities available to them.
In many ways, globalization has been instrumental in highlighting the issues that affect women in the Islamic world. These issues include property ownership, family laws, as well as historical struggles for emancipation, opportunities of representation and suffrage.
Over and above, the challenges that have for a long time beleaguered the Islamic world can effectively be solved by the influence of globalization. This is because globalization is instrumental in opening up the Islamic countries to economic progress. Coupled with liberalism, which advocates for the maximization of the freedom of choice, freedom of the press, the right to private property, as well as the use of state resources for the welfare of the individual, globalization can help develop the Islamic world.