Organization's effectiveness depends on various factors; some of the most important ones are mission and vision, marketing strategies, general development, organizational learning and culture, leadership, knowledge management, communication and team work. Organizational effectiveness is company's efficiency that is helpful when trying to meet company's objectives. Organization can be considered effective if its leaders know how to achieve the desired effect and produce without losses. It is important to keep in mind that organizational effectiveness depends on its stakeholders, company goals, and the general situation in the market. The main measures of organizational effectiveness are its profitability, productivity, performance, number of customers, and sales. Consequently, when assessing organization's effectiveness, it is essential that one does it in complex.
Apple, Inc. Inc. started as a computer company in 1976. Currently, Apple, Inc. is a large corporation that consists of 93 retail stores, located in 14 countries. Currently, Apple Inc. is more than a company specializing in the latest gadgets and devices. It is a brand that attracts customers worldwide, despite its high pricing. Steve Jobs, Ronald Wayne, and Steve Wozniak were the founders of Apple Corporation. Steve Jobs chose the name for the brand, relying on his fruitarian diet. The highest peak of Apple's success and organizational effectiveness was after 2007, when the company launched the iPod, iPhone, and iPad. However, Apple, Inc. intends to implement such innovations as iCar and iTV, proving that the company has many business ideas to work on their implementation. Apple, Inc is the most popular American corporation that develops computer electronics, sells personal computers, computer software, and other portable devices.
Organizational development is the aspect of Human Resource Management that helps organizations reach their goals and solve the emerged issues. The definition should be adopted, as it is specific, relies on the situation in the company, and takes into consideration HRM. Organizational development should be built on the following components: leadership, team building, structural improvement, cultural growth, capability development, and process improvement. It means that all of the above mentioned aspects should be fulfilled by the company to demonstrate the level of its organizational development. People, systems, tools, and processes are responsible for achieving perfection in the organizational development and growth. Organizational development is an effort that is planned intervention, managed from the top, organization-wide, and planned. Moreover, organizational development can be measured through the company's ability to increase its growth and effectiveness.
Apple's organizational development is based on its organizational culture, structure, and leadership. The organizational culture of Apple, Inc. presupposes the following principles: tough guy culture, work hard - play hard, bet your company, and process culture. The integration of the above principles means that corporation's organizational culture is characterized by high innovation, high volumes of sales, and significant technical expertise. However, Apple, Inc. should continue to develop its culture, as it is believed that when organizational culture is perfect, the company's employees do not need directives. Apple's organizational structure can be called traditional. However, the dynamic technology and intense product competition create the necessity of changes in organizational structure into administrative adhocracy. Apple's leadership is the exemplary one, as its leaders are transformational, democratic, charismatic, and highly-motivated. It is true that the success of corporation's organizational development highly depends on company's leadership. Organizational development of Apple, Inc. is preconditioned by the new strategies, policies, and change management process.
The Key Elements of Organizational Development
Organizational development of any company consists of the following components: organizational learning, organizational culture, leading and managing change, leadership development, communication and group processes, and knowledge management.
The organizational culture of Apple, Inc. is an iconic one, as it has become the example to follow for other companies in the sphere. First, all employees know their roles that are divided into the following: experts, specialists, geniuses, and creatives. Second, the corporation's leadership is not authoritarian and oppressive. Consequently, the employees know that they are all involved in the process of organizational culture. Third, Apple, Inc. retains with growth opportunities because it always promotes learning and training among its employees. Fourth, all employees are related to the company's brand name. It means that they are evaluated, promoted, and motivated by leaders and managers above them. As a result, the organizational culture of Apple, Inc. is in its HR policy, management, following ethical principles, and culture. Apple's organizational culture is characterized by the following features: moderate combativeness, secrecy, innovation, creativity, and top-notch excellence. The implications of Apple's organizational culture are its advantages, benefits, drawbacks, and weaknesses.
Knowledge management of Apple, Inc. is based on the following operations: telling, selling, testing, consulting, and co-creating. The corporation used such knowledge management tools: (1) data warehouse, (2) company intranet, and (3) expert system. Data warehouse is applied to validate, reorganize, reformate, restrict, and supplement with data from various sources. It means that all data are analyzed and used for further improvement of company's management. The company intranet is a computer network that shares information within the organization. It is evident that all employees strive to collaborate and interact when it comes to its proper usage. The expert system works on solving the complex problems of Apple, Inc. Consequently, knowledge management is a driving force of learning and training.
Communication and Group Processes
Communication and group processes belong to the important part of Apple's management. Moreover, the efficacy of communication within the company determines the effectiveness of managers, who are responsible for passing the necessary information. Consequently, employees should become the efficient channels of communication that are ready to interact, collaborate, and cooperate. The group processes in Apple, Inc. include super-subordinate communication and subordinate-initiated communication. Communication and group processes in Apple Inc. respond to business ethics, company culture, and etiquette, as well as demonstrate respect and tolerance to employees. HR managers should also develop group communication to create more productive and interesting team projects. As a result, communication and group processes develop organizational culture and business ethics. Leadership development process should be continuous to provide the efficacy and growth of other operations.
Leadership development is a continuous process, even in such a successful company as Apple, Inc. The improvements are related to the following aspects: management training, multi-faced leadership programs, implementation of a wide range of mentoring services, assessment, and coaches, the investment in company's legacy, and globalization of leadership. Apple, Inc. is developing an internal leadership program that will teach how to understand 'Apple way' of doing business and build the pipeline of leaders. Moreover, they have the leadership development program that teaches executives to think like Steve Jobs. It means that, despite innovations and changes in leadership, Steve Jobs remains an exemplary leader.
Leading and Managing Change
Leading and managing change is not inevitable in Apple, Inc. that is promoted by visionary leadership. Consequently, the changes are related to the organizational structure, innovation, and management process. Managing innovation concerns managing change directly. Innovation can touch employees, marketing, suppliers, operations, customers, and distribution. Apple, Inc. has suggested the large variety of electronic devices to their customers, changing their vision in the sphere of computer manufacturing. The company has brought the changes, related to the employees' training and learning. It means that Apple Inc. supports employees in their acquisition of knowledge and skills. The changes for suppliers refer to closer collaboration with them and finding new ones. Managing changes are inevitable for the distribution process. Apple Inc. is building relationships with big stores to sell their gadgets and devices. The changes in operations include opening Apple Inc. retail stores and adapting to the latest market tendencies. The changes in marketing of Apple, Inc. presuppose connecting with mass market, reinforcing brand name, and implementing new products.
The reason for the success of Apple, Inc. is its effective implementation of organizational learning. It means that the employees of the company get experience from their previous failures and try to learn how to avoid the similar mistakes in future. Moreover, Apple, Inc. encourages the employees' learning from successes and failures of past products. They organize trainings and seminars to provide employees with new knowledge and skills, necessary for the problem solutions and creating new better products profitable for the company. Organizational learning is the part of knowledge management that supports the distribution of new information. However, Apple, Inc. should continue to be the learning organization to provide the development, transformation, and innovation processes.
The Recommendations for Improvement and Continued Success
For further organizational development, Apple, Inc. should improve its organizational development. It is recommended to communicate more about human resource's needs and devote time for their learning and training. The gadgets and electronic devices are constantly improving in various aspects. Consequently, organizational development can be improved with the help of the development work and innovative technologies. Organizational development should be more strategic and creative, in order to respond to the company's necessities. Moreover, innovation should be the leading aspect for the implementation. As a result, a positive environment within the organization and organizational culture between employees are necessary for proving the continued success.
To improve leadership development, it is recommended to teach executives to think like the exemplary leader Steve Jobs did, implement the programs developing creative and strategic skills not only executives but employees who should strive to be the leaders in their teams. Moreover, the improvement of leadership can be done with the help of the continuous training and learning among the employees. The leaders of the company should be motivated and encourage others to greatness, productivity, and performance. They should be role models for the employees. In addition, it is recommended to maintain positive attitudes and improve communication skills.
To improve knowledge management, it is recommended to conduct the continuous training. Employees should be well trained, motivated, experienced and dedicated, and this is the strategic approach of Human Resource Management that can solve this problem. Well-trained and motivated employees can provide productivity and efficiency in operations of a company. Increasing product quality also depends on employees, that is why one should not ignore this aspect of management.
In conclusion, it is important to mention that organization's effectiveness is the biggest desire of any company that is looking for ways to increase its sales and profits. Apple, Inc. is the example of organization's effectiveness due to its visionary leadership, rich experience in the market, and successful human resource management. Organizational development presupposes building the strategy that helps organizations to reach their goals and solve the emerged issues. Apple's organizational development is successful due to its leadership, ethical corporate culture, and social responsibility. Organizational culture of Apple, Inc. is favorable due to the clear division of employees, according to their roles, business etiquette, and business ethics. The key elements of organizational development of Apple, Inc are organizational learning, leading and managing change, leadership development, communication and group processes, knowledge management, and organizational development. For improvement and continuous success, it is recommended to better knowledge management, leadership development, and organizational development.